Since 2011, Libya has been affected by political, security and economic volatility. Continued violence and insecurity, including escalations in conflict, coupled with political stalemate, has resulted in a governance vacuum which has created significant security, rule of law, and social and economic consequences.
An estimate of 897,000 people are considered to be in need of humanitarian assistance in Libya in 2020. This reflects the most vulnerable people that have been identified as having the most severe needs (severe, catastrophic and extreme). Those in need of humanitarian assistance include internally displaced persons, returnees, non-displaced conflict-affected people, refugees and migrants.
The humanitarian situation in Libya is increasingly complex. The protracted nature of the conflict severely impacts on people’s wellbeing and livelihoods. Political stalemate has resulted in a governance vacuum, and coupled with widespread violence and insecurity, including direct attacks on public infrastructure, have disrupted the economy and public service delivery across the country.
Furthermore, spikes in violence, such as the escalation of conflict in Tripoli since April 2019 and clashes in Murzuq in August 2019, have resulted in increased civilian casualties and further displacement.
Across the country, over 301,000 Libyans remain displaced, including 128,000 people due to the Tripoli conflict, reversing the declining trend in displacement. As displacement has increased, so has the number of Libyans who are returning to their homes, around 447,000 people.
Living conditions, including access to clean drinking water, medical services, and safe housing have all degraded due to the protracted situation in the country, particularly for women and children.
Despite the crisis, Libya remains an attractive destination for migrant workers due to an economy that relies on foreign labour, higher salaries and historical ties, as well as being a transitory route for people seeking opportunities or asylum in Europe. An estimated 655,000 refugees and migrants are in Libya, including 48,000 registered refugees and asylum seekers. However, refugees and migrants continue to be exposed to protection risks, human rights violations, exploitation and abuse.